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Elise Klein

MD, Ph.D

Associate research professor


Elise is a CNRS researcher at the Université de Paris since 2020. She is a cognitive neuroscientist with both, a psychological (PhD) as well as a medical background (MD). Her research at the intersection between Cognitive Neuroscience, Experimental (Neuro)psychology, and Developmental Psychology is dedicated to the understanding of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of numerical cognition.
After graduating from Medical School (RWTH Aachen University, Germany) in 2007, Elise received her MD degree at RWTH Aachen University in 2009 (summa cum laude, supervisor: Klaus Willmes) and her PhD degree at Tuebingen University (Germany) in 2012 (summa cum laude, supervisor: Hans-Christoph Nuerk). She has been a post-doctoral researcher in the laboratory of Korbinian Moeller at the Leibniz-Institute fuer Wissensmedien (IWM) in Tuebingen (Germany) from 2012 to 2019, where she headed the junior research group NeuroLearn from 2014 to 2019. From 2015 to 2019 she also was a Wrangell-Fellow.
Elise’s work is grounded in the view that normal and impaired higher cognitive functions can only be fully explained when combining the understanding of their neural grey matter correlates and their structural as well as functional connectivity with behaviour.


Smaczny, S., Klein, E., Jung, S., Moeller, K. & Karnath, H.-O. (2024). The line bisection bias as a deficit of proportional reasoning −  Evidence from Number Line Estimation in Neglect. Neuropsychologia, 196, 108848.


Ninaus, M., Cortez, R. Hazin, I., Kiili, K., Wortha, S.M., Klein, E.,  Weiss, E.M. & Moeller, K. (2023). The added value of game elements:  better training performance but comparable learning gains. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1-23.


Wortha, S. M., Klein, E., Lambert, K., Dackermann, T., & Moeller, K. (2023). The relevance of basic numerical skills for fraction processing: Evidence from cross-sectional data. PLOS ONE, 18(1), e0281241.


Klein, E., Zamarian, L., & Kaufmann, L. (2023). Challenges in Understanding Numerical Learning: Editorial for Brain Sciences Special Issue “Neurocognitive Signatures of Math (Learning) across the Lifespan and Their Interrelation with Other Aspects of Cognition and Emotion.” Brain Sciences, 13(3), 420.


Smaczny, S., Sperber, C., Jung, S., Moeller, K., Karnath, H., & Klein, E. (2023). Disconnection in a left-hemispheric temporo-parietal network impairs multiplication fact retrieval. NeuroImage, 268, 119840.


Klein, E., & Knops, A. (2023). The two-network framework of number processing: a step towards a better understanding of the neural origins of developmental dyscalculia. Journal of Neural Transmission, 130(3), 253–268.


Göbel, S. M., Terry, R., Klein, E., Hymers, M., & Kaufmann, L. (2022). Impaired Arithmetic Fact Retrieval in an Adult with Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from Behavioral and Functional Brain Imaging Data. Brain Sciences, 12(6), 735.


Rosenzopf, H., Sperber, C., Wortha, F., Wiesen, D., Muth, A., Klein, E., Möller, K., & Karnath, H. O. (2022). Spatial neglect in the digital age: Influence of presentation format on patients’ test behavior. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1–10.


Jung, S., Janssen, R. J., & Klein, E. (2022). Laterality in simple multiplication: Assessing hemispheric specialization of arithmetic fact retrieval in a visual hemifield paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 48(4), 351–369.


Greipl, S., Klein, E., Lindstedt, A., Kiili, K., Moeller, K., Karnath, H.- O., Bahnmueller, J., Bloechle, J., & Ninaus, M. (2021). When the brain comes into play: Neurofunctional correlates of emotions and reward in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 125, 106946.


Klein, E., Babai, R., Ischebeck, A. & Moeller, K. (2021). Editorial: Neuro-cognitive Architecture of Numerical Cognition and Its Development. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15, 670460.


Jung, S., Moeller, K., Klein, E., & Heller, J. (2021). Mode effect: An issue of perspective? Writing mode differences in a spelling assessment in German children with and without developmental dyslexia. Dyslexia, 27(3), 373‑410.


Colling, L.J.*, Szűcs, D.*, De Marco, D., Cipora, K., Ulrich, R., Nuerk, HC., Soltanlou, M., Bryce, D., Chen, SC., Schroeder, PA., Henare, DT., Chrystall, CK., Corballis, PM., Ansari, D., Goffin, C., Sokolowwski, HM., Hancock, PJB., Millen, AE., Langton, SRH., ... McShane, BB.* (2020). Registered Replication Report on Fischer, Castel, Dodd, and Pratt (2003). Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 3(2), 143-162.


Wortha, S.M, Bloechle, J., Ninaus, M., Kiili, K., Lindstedt, A., Bahnmueller, J., Moeller, K., & Klein, E. (2020). Neurofunctional plasticity in fraction learning: an fMRI training study. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 21, 100141.


Jung, S., Moeller, K., Karnath, H. O., Klein, E. (2020). Hemispheric lateralization of arithmetic facts and magnitude processing for two-digit numbers. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, 88.


Jung, S., Roesch, S., Klein, E., Dackermann, T., Heller, J., & Moeller, K. (2020). The strategy matters: Bounded and unbounded number line estimation in secondary school children. Cognitive Development, 53, 100839.


Kaufmann, L., von Aster, M., Göbel., S.M., Marksteiner, J., & Klein, E. (2020). Developmental dyscalculia in adults: Current issues and open questions for future research. Lernen und Lernstörungen, 9(2), 126-137.


Ninaus, M., Greipl, S., Kiili, K., Lindstedt, A., Huber, S. M., Klein, E., Karnath, H., & Moeller, K. (2019). Increased emotional engagement in game-based learning – A machine learning approach on facial emotion detection data. Computers & Education, 142, 103641.

Klein, E.*, Bieck, S. M.*, Bloechle, J., Huber, S. M., Bahnmueller, J., Willmes, K., & Moeller, K. (2019). Anticipation of difficult tasks: neural correlates of negative emotions and emotion regulation. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 15, 4.


Dietrich, J., Nuerk, H., Klein, E., Moeller, K., & Huber, S. M. (2019). Set size influences the relationship between ANS acuity and math performance: a result of different strategies? Psychological Research-psychologische Forschung, 83, 590–612.

Klein, E., Willmes, K., Bieck, S.M., Bloechle, J., & Moeller, K. (2019). White matter neuro-plasticity in mental arithmetic: changes in hippocampal connectivity following arithmetic drill training. Cortex, 114, 115-123.

Mock, J., Huber, S., Bloechle, J., Bahnmueller, J., Moeller, K., & Klein, E. (2019). Processing symbolic and non-symbolic proportions: Domain-specific numerical and domain-general processes in intraparietal cortex. Brain Research, 1714, 133-146.

Klein, E., Moeller, K., Huber, S., Willmes, K., Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U., & Kaufmann, L. (2018). Gestational age modulates neural correlates of intentional, but not automatic number magnitude processing in children born preterm. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 65(1), 38-44.

Bloechle, J., Huber, J.F., Klein, E., Bahnmueller, J., Rennig, J., Moeller, K., & Huber, S. (2018). Spatial arrangement and set size influence the coding of non-symbolic quantities in the intraparietal sulcus. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, 54.


Mock, J.*, Huber, S.*, Bloechle, J., Dietrich, J.F., Bahnmueller, J., Rennig, J., Klein, E., & Moeller, K. (2018). Magnitude processing of symbolic and non-symbolic proportions: an fMRI study. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 14, 9.


Bloechle, J., Huber, S. M., Klein, E., Bahnmueller, J., Moeller, K., & Rennig, J. (2018). Neuro-cognitive mechanisms of global Gestalt perception in visual quantification. NeuroImage, 181, 359–369.

Bieck, S. M., Artemenko, C., Moeller, K., & Klein, E. (2018). Low to No Effect: Application of tRNS During Two-Digit Addition. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12, 176.


Braga, L.W., Amemiya, E., Tauil, A., Suguieda, D., Lacerda, C., Klein, E., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Dehaene, S. (2017). Tracking adult literacy acquisition with functional MRI: a single-case study. Mind, Brain and Education, 11(3), 121-132.


Spüler, M., Walter, C., Rosenstiel, W., Gerjets, P., Moeller, K., Klein, E. (2016). EEG-based prediction of cognitive workload induced by arithmetic - A step towards online adaptation in numerical learning. ZDM Mathematics and Education, 1-12. doi:10.1007/s11858-015-0754-8.

Scharinger, M., Domahs, U., Klein, E. Domahs, F. (2016). Mental representations of vowel features asymmetrically modulate activity in superior temporal sulcus. Brain and Language, 163, 42-49.

Mock, J., Huber, S., Klein, E., Moeller, K. (2016). Insights into numerical cognition - Considering eye-fixations in number processing and arithmetic. Psychological Research, 80, 334-359.

Dietrich, J.F., Huber, S., Klein, E., Willmes, K., Pixner, S., Moeller, K. (2016). A systematic investigation of accuracy and response time based measures used to index ANS acuity. PLoS One, 11(9), e0163076. [OA]

Klein, E., Willmes, K., Jung, S., Huber, S., Braga, L. W., Moeller, K. (2016). Differing connectivity of Exner's area for numbers and letters. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 281. [OA]

Huber, S., Klein, E., Moeller, K., Willmes, K. (2016). Spatial-numerical and ordinal positional associations coexist in parallel. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 438.

Morozova, M., Koschutnig, K., Klein, E., Wood, G. (2016). Monotonic non-linear transformations as a tool to investigate age-related effects on brain white matter integrity: A Box-Cox investigation. Neuroimage, 125, 1119-30.

Bloechle, J., Huber, S., Bahnmueller, J., Rennig, J., Willmes, K., Cavdaroglu, S., Moeller, K., Klein, E. (2016). Fact Learning in Complex Arithmetic - The Role of the Angular Gyrus revisited. Human Brain Mapping, 37, 3061-3079.

Klein, E., Suchan, J., Moeller, K., Karnath, H.-O., Knops, A., Wood, G., Nuerk, H.-C., Willmes K. (2016). Considering structural connectivity in the triple code model of numerical cognition - Differential connectivity for magnitude processing and arithmetic facts. Brain Structure and Function, 221(2), 979-95.

Artemenko, C., Moeller, K., Huber, S., Klein, E. (2015). Differential influences of unilateral tDCS over the intraparietal cortex on numerical cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 110. [OA]

Dietrich, J. F., Huber, S., Moeller, K., Klein, E. (2015). The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1621. [OA]

Huber, S., Klein, E., Moeller, K., Willmes, K. (2015). Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data. Cortex, 71, 148-159.

Shikhare, S., Heim, S., Klein, E., Huber, S. Willmes, K. (2015). Processing of numerical and proportional quantifiers. Cognitive Science, 39, 1504-1536.

Jung, S., Halm, K., Huber, W., Willmes, K., Klein, E. (2015). What letters can "learn" from Arabic digits - fMRI-controlled single case therapy study of peripheral agraphia. Brain and Language, 149, 13-26.

Huber, S., Klein, E., Graf, M., Nuerk, H.-C., Moeller, K., Willmes, K. (2015). Embodied markedness of parity? Examining handedness effects on parity judgments. Psychological Research, 79, 963-977.

Mihulowicz, K., Klein, E., Nuerk, H.-O., Willmes, K., Karnath, H.-O. (2015). Spatial displacement of numbers on a vertical number line in spatial neglect. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 240. [OA]

Huber, S., Bahnmueller, J., Klein, E., Moeller, K. (2015). Testing a model of componential processing of multi-symbol numbers - Evidence from measurement units. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 22, 1417-1423.

Moeller, K., Willmes, K., Klein, E. (2015). A review on functional and structural brain connectivity in numerical cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 227.

Rath, D., Domahs, F., Dressel, K., Claros-Salinas, D., Klein, E., Willmes, K., Krinzinger, H. (2015). Patterns of linguistic and numerical performance in aphasia. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 11:2. [OA]

Klein, E., Huber, S., Nuerk, H.-C., Moeller, K.(2014). Operational momentum affects eye fixation behaviour. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(8), 1614-1625.

Huber, S., Klein, E., Willmes, K., Nuerk, H.-C., Moeller, K. (2014). Decimal fraction representations are not distinct from natural number representations - Evidence from a combined eye-tracking and computational modelling approach. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 172.

Heisterueber, M., Klein, E., Willmes, K., Heim, S., Domahs, F. (2014). Processing word prosody - behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for heterogeneous performance in a language with variable stress. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 365.

Mihulowicz, U., Willmes, K., Karnath, H.-O., Klein, E. (2014). Single-digit arithmetic processing - anatomical evidence from statistical voxel-based lesion analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 286.

Klein, E., Moeller., K., Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U., Kremser, C., Starke, M., Cohen Kadosh, R., Pupp-Peglow, U., Schocke, M., Kaufmann, L. (2014). Processing of intentional and automatic number magnitudes in children born prematurely - Evidence from fMRI. Developmental Neuropsychology, 39(5), 342-364.

Moeller, K., Klein, E., Kucian, K., Willmes, K. (2014). Numerical Development - From cognitive functions to neural underpinnings. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1047.

Willmes, K., Moeller, K., Klein, E. (2014). Where numbers meet words - A common ventral network for semantic classification. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55, 202-211.

Ochtrup, M.-T., Rath, D., Klein, E., Krinzinger, H., Willmes, K. Domahs, F. (2013). Are Number Words Fundamentally Different? A Qualitative Analysis of Aphasic Errors in Word and Number Word Production. International Journal of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, 1, 12-28.

Moeller, K., Klein, E., Willmes, K., Nuerk, H.-C. (2013). Magnitude representation in sequential comparison of two-digit numbers is not holistic either. Cognitive Processing, 14, 51-62.

Klein, E., Mann, A., Huber, S., Bloechle, J., Willmes, K., Karim, A.A., Nuerk, H.-C., Moeller, K. (2013). Bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity modulates bilateral cognitive processes differentially. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e71607.

Klein, E., Bahnmueller, J., Mann, A., Pixner, S., Kaufmann, L., Nuerk, H.-C. Moeller, K. (2013). Language influences on numerical development - Inversion effects on multi-digit number processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 480.

Moeller, K., Klein, E., Nuerk, H.-C. (2013). Influences of cognitive control in numerical cognition - Adaptation by binding for implicit learning. Topics in Cognitive Science, 5(2), 335-353.

Klein, E., Moeller, K., Glauche, V., Weiller, C., Willmes, K. (2013). Processing pathways in mental arithmetic - Evidence from probabilistic fiber tracking. PLoS ONE, 8(1), e55455. [OA]

Domahs, U., Klein, E., Huber, W., Domahs, F. (2013). Good, bad and ugly word stress - fMRI evidence for foot structure driven processing of prosodic violations. Brain and Language, 125(3), 272-282.

Klein, E., Moeller, K., Willmes, K.(2013).A neural disconnection hypothesis on impaired numerical processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 663. [OA]

Heisterüber, M., Schäffner, S., Heim, S., Klein, E., Willmes, K., Domahs, F. (2013). Funktionelle Bildgebung subklinischer Defizite in der Wortakzentverarbeitung [Neuroimaging Studies of Subclinical Deficits in Word Stress Processing]. Sprache, Stimme, Gehör, 37(1), 21-23.

Klein, E., Moeller, K., Zinsberger, D., Zauner, H., Wood, G., Willmes, K., Haider, C., Gassner, A., Nuerk, H.-C. (2013). Object-based neglect in number processing. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 9, 5. [OA]

Moeller, K., Klein, E., Nuerk, H.-C., Cohen Kadosh, R. (2012). A unitary or multiple representations of numerical magnitude? - The case of symbolic and non-symbolic two-digit quantities. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 191.

Domahs, F., Klein, E., Moeller, K., Nuerk, H.-C., Yoon, B.-C., Willmes, K. (2012). Multimodal semantic quantity representations Further evidence from Korean Sign Language. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 389.

Klein, E., Moeller, K., Willmes, K., Nuerk, H.-C., Domahs, F. (2011). The influence of implicit hand-based representations on mental arithmetic. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 197. [OA]

Klein, E., Domahs, U, Grande, M., Domahs, F. (2011). Neuro-cognitive foundations of word stress processing - evidence from fMRI. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 7, 15.

Moeller K., Klein, E., Fischer, M. H., Nuerk, H.-C., Willmes, K. (2011). Representation of Multiplication Facts - Evidence for partial verbal coding. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 7, 25. [OA]

Moeller, K., Klein, E., Nuerk, H.-C. (2011). (No) small adults - Children's processing of carry addition problems. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36(6), 702-720.

Domahs, F., Rath, D., Klein, E., Krinzinger, H. Willmes, K. (2011). Numerische und sprachliche Kognition bei Patienten mit Aphasie. Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie, 3, 199-200.

Nuerk, H.-C., Moeller, K., Klein, E., Willmes, K., Fischer, M. H. (2011). Extending the Mental Number Line - A Review of Multi-Digit Number Processing. Journal of Psychology, 219, 3-22.

Moeller, K., Klein, E., Nuerk, H.-C. (2011). Three processes underlying the carry effect in addition - Evidence from eye-tracking. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 623-645.

Klein, E., Moeller, K., Nuerk, H.-C., Willmes K. (2010). On the neuro-cognitive foundations of basic auditory number processing. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6, 42.

Klein, E., Moeller, K., Dressel, K., Domahs, F., Wood, G., Willmes, K., Nuerk, H.-C. (2010). To carry or not to carry - is this the question? Disentangling the carry effect in multi-digit addition. Acta Psychologica, 135, 67-76.

Klein, E., Willmes, K., Dressel, K., Domahs, F., Wood, G., Nuerk, H.-C., Moeller, K. (2010). Categorical and continuous - Disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6:70.

Zaunmüller, L., Domahs, F., Dressel, K., Lonnemann, J., Klein, E., Ischebeck, A., Willmes, K. (2009). Rehabilitation of arithmetic fact retrieval via extensive practice A combined fMRI and behavioural case-study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 19, 422-443.

Klein, E., Nuerk, H.-C., Wood, G., Knops, A., Willmes, K. (2009). The exact vs. approximate distinction in numerical cognition may not be exact, but only approximate - How different processes work together in multi-digit addition. Brain and Cognition, 2, 369-381.

Moeller, K., Pixner, S., Klein, E., Cress, U., Nuerk, H.-C. (2009). Zahlenverarbeitung ist nicht gleich Rechnen - Eine Beschreibung basisnumerischer Repräsentationen und spezifischer Interventionsansätze. Prävention und Rehabilitation, 21(3), 121-136.

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